Climate change affects cities, as well as agriculture and natural areas. To date, we are not able to predict its exact impact and the transformations it will generate. According to the scientific community, it will have a strong impact on a few billion human beings and on all living species and their habitats.
The planet's climate has undergone variations throughout its history. But the increase in temperature that we have been observing for about 150 years is abnormal because it is caused by man and his activities. Human activities are in fact responsible for increasing pressures and impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems, and climate change massively intensifies the threats. Science-based planning and monitoring are among the most effective tools for addressing climate change, both in natural and urban environments.
Cities, in fact, can address some impacts of climate change through an in-depth scientific approach of analysis and monitoring, which provides support in defining urban design measures and innovative green solutions based on nature, helping to reduce episodes of extreme heat, pollution, production of CO2, health problems, energy dispersion, etc. Including biodiversity in such contexts also helps to provide a wide range of services ecosystemic (supply, regulation and maintenance, cultural) which are essential to human well-being, playing an important regulatory role and thus contributing to the mitigation and adaptation to climate change.
Equally, adaptive management of key ecosystems and socio-ecological systems is an important iterative process, where management actions must be followed by targeted monitoring. This is a continuous learning process, aimed at increasing the adaptive capacity of the affected habitats and of the plant and animal species at risk.